Polycentric urban structure: The case of Milwaukee
Theoretical models of urban structure are based on the assumption that all jobs are located in the central business district (CBD). Although this assumption was never literally true, it is a useful approximation for a traditional city in which the CBD holds the only large concentration of jobs. As metropolitan areas have become increasingly decentralized, traditional CBDs have come to account for a much smaller proportion of jobs than in the past. Large employment districts have arisen outside of central cities that rival the traditional city center as places of work. When these districts are large enough to have significant effects on urban spatial structure, they are referred to in the urban economics literature as .employment subcenters.